Additional Readings


Week 1: Introduction

United States Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.“Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center,” Available online: http://www.walkinginfo.org and http://www.bicyclinginfo.org.

Alta Planning & Design. Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities in California: A Technical Reference and Technology Transfer Synthesis for Caltrans Planners and Engineers, Prepared for California Department of Transportation, July 2005.


United States Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. Fall 2007 Safe Routes To School Tracking Report, National Center for Safe Routes to School. Available online: http://www.saferoutesinfo.org/online_library/details.cfm?id=3964, 2007.


LaPlante J. and B. McCann.“Complete Streets:We Can Get There from Here,” ITE Journal, p. 24-28, May 2008.


Rails-to-Trails Conservancy. Trails & Greenways: Advancing the Smart Growth Agenda, Author: Hugh Morris, September 2002. Available online: http://www.railtrails.org/whatwedo/railtrailinfo/resources/documents.html.


Krizek, K., G. Barnes, R. Wilson, R. Johns, L. McGinnis, A. Forsyth, S.L. Handy, and K.J. Clifton. Non-Motorized Transportation Pilot Program Evaluation Study: Final Report, University of Minnesota, Federal Highway Administration, June 2007.


U.S. Department of Transportation.National Survey of Pedestrian and Bicyclist Attitudes and Behaviors, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 2002.

Buehler, T. J. (2007). Fifty Years of Bicycle Policy in Davis, CA. University of California, Davis, Davis, CA.


Week 2: Benefits and Challenges of Promoting Pedestrian and Bicycle Transportation

Saelens, B.E. and S.L. Handy.“Built Environment Correlates of Walking: A Review,” Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, Volume 40, Number 7S, pp. S550–S566, 2008.


Handy, S. Critical Assessment of the Literature on the Relationships Among Transportation, Land Use, and Physical Activity, Transportation Research Board Special Report 282, Available online: http://trb.org/downloads/sr282papers/sr282Handy.pdf, 2005.


Schlossberg, M., J. Greene, P. P. Phillips, B. Johnson, and R. Parker. “School Trips: Effects of Urban Form and Distance on Travel Mode,” Journal of the American Planning Association. Volume 72, Number 3, pp. 337-346, Available online:
http://www.uoregon.edu/~schlossb/articles/schlossberg_school_trips.pdf, 2006.


Handy, S. and P. Mokhtarian. “Which Comes First: The Neighborhood or the Walking?” Access, Number 26, Spring 2005.

Ewing, R. and Cervero, R. “Travel and the Built Environment and Synthesis,” Transportation Research Record 1780, pp. 87-114, 2001.


Forsyth, A., M. Hearst, J.M. Oakes, and K.H. Schmitz.“Does Residential Density Increase Walking and Other Physical Activity?” Urban Studies, Volume 44, Number 4, pp. 679-697, 2007.

Cervero, R. and Radisch, C. Travel Choices in Pedestrian versus Automobile Oriented Neighborhoods, University of California Transportation Center, Working Paper 281, University of California at Berkeley, Available online, http://www.uctc.net/papers/281.pdf, 1995.


Krizek, K. “Operationalizing Neighborhood Accessibility for Land Use-Travel Behavior Research and Regional Modeling,” Journal of Planning Education and Research, Volume 22, pp. 270-287, 2003.


Purvis, C.Incorporating Effects of Smart Growth and TOD in San Francisco Bay Area Travel Demand Models: Current and Future Strategies, Metropolitan Transportation Commission, Available Online: http://www.mtc.ca.gov/maps_and_data/datamart/research/Incorporating_Smart_Growth_MTC_models.pdf, 2003.

Jonnalagadda, N., J. Freedman, W.A. Davidson, and J.D. Hunt.“Development of Microsimulation Activity-Based Model for San Francisco: Destination and Mode Choice Models,” Transportation Research Record 1777, 2001.

Jerret, M., M. M. Finkelstein, J. R. Brook, M. A. Arain, P. Kanaroglou, D. M. Stieb, N. L. Gilbert, D. Verma, N. Finkelstein, K. R. Chapman, and M. R. Sears. “A Cohort Study of Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Mortality in Toronto, Ontario, Canada,” Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 117, 772–777, 2009.

Frumkin, H., L. Frank, and R. Jackson.Urban Sprawl and Public Health: Designing, Planning, and Building for Healthy Communities, Washington, DC: Island Press; 2004.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).“Emission Facts: Calculating Emissions of Greenhouse Gases: Key Facts and Figures,” Available online: http://www.epa.gov/oms/climate/420f05003.htm, 2005.

Federal Highway Administration (FHWA).Traffic Volume Trends, Available Online, http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/ohim/tvtw/09aprtvt/09aprtvt.pdf, April 2009.

Komanoff, Charles and Cora Roelofs, National Bicycling and Walking Study, “Case Study no. 15: The Environmental Benefits of Bicycling and Walking,” Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Dept. of Transportation, 1993.


Barnes, G. The Benefits of Bicycling in Minnesota, Minnesota Department of Transportation, December 2004.


Lawrie, J., T. Norman, M. Meletiou, and S.W. O’Brien. Bikeways to Prosperity: Assessing the Economic Impact of Bicycle Facilities, Prepared for the North Carolina Department of Transportation, Available online, http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/trnews/trnews242.pdf, 2006.


Blumenauer, E. and Oberstar, J. Recognizing the Importance of Bicycling in Transportation and Recreation, Bill Introduced in the House of Representatives, H. CON. RES. 305, 110th United States Congress, February 28, 2008.

Goldsmith, Stewart, National Bicycling and Walking Study, “Case Study no. 1: Reasons Why Bicycling and Walking Are and Are Not Being Used More Extensively as Travel Modes,” Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Dept. of Transportation, 1993.


Zehnpfenning, Gary H., National Bicycling and Walking Study, “Case Study no. 4: Measures to Overcome Impediments to Bicycling and Walking,” Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Dept. of Transportation, 1993.

Northridge, M. E., Sclar, E., & Biswas, P. (2003). Sorting out the connections between the built environment and health: A conceptual framework for navigating pathways and planning healthy cities. Journal of Urban Health, 80, 556-568.


Boarnet, M. G., Anderson, C. L., Day, K., McMillan, T., & Alfonzo, M. (2005). Evaluation of the California Safe Routes to School Legislation - Urban Form Changes and Children's Active Transportation to School. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 28(2S2), 134-140.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2008, July 24). U.S. Obesity Trends 1985-2007. Overweight and Obesity Retrieved October 13, 2008, from http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/obesity/trend/maps/index.htm

Cooper, A. R., Page, A. S., Foster, L. J., & Qahwaji, D. (2003). Commuting to School - Are Children Who Walk More Physically Active? American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 24(4), 273-276.


Federal Highway Administration. (2008). Safe Routes to School. Safe Routes to School Retrieved October 13, 2008, from http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/saferoutes/

McDonald, N. (2007). Active Transportation to School - Trends Among U.S. Schoolchildren, 1969-2001. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 32(6), 509-516.


Fulton, J. E., Shisler, J. L., Yore, M. M., & Caspersen, C. J. (2005). Active Transportation to School: Findings from a National Survey. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 76(3), 352-357.


Appleyard, B. S. (2009). Pedestrian and bicycle planning. In G. Hack, E. L. Birch, P. H. Sedway & M. J. Silver (Eds.), Local Planning - Contemporary Principles and Practice (pp. 366-374). Philadelphia: ICMA Press.


Week 3: Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety: Crash Data, Perceptions, Attitudes, and Culture

Schneider, R.J., M.C. Diogenes, L.S. Arnold, V. Attaset, J. Griswold, and D.R. Ragland.“Association between Roadway Intersection Characteristics and Pedestrian Crash Risk in Alameda County, California,” Presented at Transportation Research Board 89th Annual Meeting, January 2010.


Harwood, D.W., D.J. Torbic, D.K. Gilmore, C.D. Bokenkroger, J.M. Dunn, C.V. Zegeer, R. Srinivasan, D. Carter, C. Raborn, C. Lyon, and B. Persaud.Pedestrian Safety Prediction Methodology, Final Report for National Highway Cooperative Research Program Project 17-28, March 2008.


US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Types of the Early 1990s.


Aultman-Hall, L. and J. LaMondia. “Developing a Methodology to Evaluate the Safety of Shared-Use Paths: Results from Three Corridors in Connecticut,” Prepared for the Connecticut Department of Transportation, May 2004.


Stutts, J.C. and W.W. Hunter. “Police-reporting of Pedestrians and Bicyclists Treated in Hospital Emergency Rooms,” Transportation Research Record 1635, Transportation Research Board, pp. 88-92, 1998.
http://www.brr-law.com/criminal-attorney-lexington-ky/


McMahon, P.J., C.V. Zegeer, C. Duncan, R.L. Knoblauch, J.R. Stewart, and A.J. Khattak. An Analysis of Factors Contributing to “Walking Along Roadway” Crashes: Research Study and Guidelines for Sidewalks and Walkways, Federal Highway Administration, FHWA-RD-01-101, February 2002.


Geyer, J., N. Raford, T. Pham, and D.R. Ragland. “Safety in Numbers: Data from Oakland, California,”Transportation Research Record 1982, pp. 150-154, 2006.


Week 4: Anatomy of a Pedestrian and Bicycle Plan

US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. “Sample Pedestrian Plans,” Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center, Available online: http://www.walkinginfo.org/develop/sample-plans.cfm, 2007.

US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. “Exemplary Bicycle Plans,” Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center, Available online: http://www.bicyclinginfo.org/develop/sample-plans.cfm , 2007.


Week 5: Pedestrian and Bicycle Facility Design Fundamentals

US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. PEDSAFE: Pedestrian Safety Guide and Countermeasure Selection System, Authors: D.L. Harkey and C.V. Zegeer. Available online: http://www.walkinginfo.org/pedsafe/, September 2004.



US Access Board. Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines, as amended through 2002. Available online: http://www.access-board.gov/adaag/html/adaag.htm, 2002.

US Access Board. Accessible Rights-of-Way: A Design Guide, 1999.
http://www.access-board.gov/prowac/guide/PROWGuide.htm.


Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center. Bike Lane Design Guide, 2002.


Portland State University Initiative for Bicycle and Pedestrian Innovation and Alta Planning & Design.Fundamentals of Bicycle Boulevard Planning & Design, Authors: Walker, L., M. Tresidder, M. Birk, L. Weigand, and J. Dill, CUS-CTS-09-02, Available online: http://www.ibpi.usp.pdx.edu/media/BicycleBoulevardGuidebook.pdf, July 2009.

American Association of State Highway Transportation Officials. Guide for the Planning, Design, and Operation of Pedestrian Facilities, 2004.

Association of Pedestrian and Bicycle Professionals. Bicycle Parking Guidelines, 2002. Available online: http://www.bicyclinginfo.org/pdf/bikepark.pdf.


Flink, C.A. and R.M. Searns. Greenways: A Guide to Planning, Design, and Development, Island Press, 1993.

Florida Department of Transportation. Pedestrian Facilities Planning and Design Handbook, 1999. Available online: http://www.dot.state.fl.us/safety/ped_bike/ped_bike_standards.htm#Florida%20Ped%20Handbook.


Birk, M., & Geller, R. Bridging the Gaps: How the Quality and Quantity of a Connected Bikeway Network Correlates with Increasing Bicycle Use. Paper presented at the Transportation Research Board, 2005. Retrieved June 4, 2009, from www.onegreencity.com/images/crucial/builditandtheywillcome.pdf

Week 6: Pedestrian and Bicycle Facility Design Innovations and Cost Considerations

Institute for Transportation Engineers and Congress of New Urbanism.Context Sensitive Solutions in Designing Major Urban Thoroughfares for Walkable Communities: An ITE Proposed Recommended Practice, 2006.

Fitzpatrick, K., S. Turner, et al. Improving Pedestrian Safety at Unsignalized Crossings, Transit Cooperative Research Program Report 112, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report 562, Transportation Research Board, Available online, http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=6630, 2006. READ PAGES 16-21, 43-52, 59-61


US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. Bicycle Lanes Versus Wide Curb Lanes: Operational and Safety Findings and Countermeasure Recommendations, Author: D. Harkey, FHWA-RD-99-035, 1999. READ CHAPTERS 2 & 4


Potts, I.B., D.W. Harwood, and K.R. Richard.“Relationship of Lane Width to Safety on Urban and Suburban Arterials,” Transportation Research Record 2023, Transportation Research Board, 2007.


Søren Underlien Jensen, Claus Rosenkilde, Niels Jensen. Road Safety and Perceived Risk of Cycle Facilities in Copenhagen, White Paper, City of Copenhagen, Denmark and Trafitec, 2007.


Huang, H.F., Stewart, J.R., and Zegeer, C.V. “Evaluation of lane reduction “road diet” measures on crashes and injuries”, Transportation Research Record, No. 1784, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., pp. 80-90, 2002.


H.F. Huang, C.V. Zegeer, R. Nassi, and B. Fairfax. “The Effects of Innovative Pedestrian Signs at Unsignalized Locations: A Tale of Three Treatments,” FHWA, FHWA-RD-00-098, Available online at: www.tfhrc.gov/safety/pedbike/pubs/00-098.pdf, 2001.


Van Houten, R., R. A. Retting, C. M. Farmer, J. Van Houten, and J. E. L. Malenfant. “Field Evaluation of a Leading Pedestrian Interval Signal Phase at Three Urban Intersections,” Transportation Research R9cord 1734, 2000.

Van Houten, R., D. McCusker, and L. Malenfant, “Advance Yield Markings: Reducing Motor Vehicle-Pedestrian Conflicts at Multilane Crosswalks with Uncontrolled Approach,” Transportation Research Record 1773, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, DC, 2001, pp. 69-74.

Zein, S.R., Geddes, E., Memsing, S., Johnson, M., “Safety Benefits of Traffic Calming,” Transportation Research Record, Volume 1578 pp. 3-10, 1997.

Huang, H.F., Stewart, J.R., and Zegeer, C.V. “Evaluation of Lane Reduction “Road Diet” Measures and Their Effects on Crashes and Injuries,” Highway Safety Information System (HSIS) Summary, Publication HSIS FHWA-HRT-04-082, http://www.hsisinfo.org/pdf/04-082.htm, 2004.


Pawlovich, M., W. Li, A. Carriquiry, and T. Welch. “Iowa’s Experience with ‘Road Diet’ Measures: Impacts on Crash Frequencies and Crash Rates Assessed Following a Bayesian Approach”, Submitted for review to Transportation Research Record, Available online, http://www.dot.state.ia.us/crashanalysis/pdfs/trb_roaddiet_papersubmission_08012005.pdf, December 2005.


City of Cambridge, MA. “Safety Benefits of Bike Lanes.” Available Online: http://www.ci.cambridge.ma.us/cdd/et/bike/bike_safety.html OR
http://www.cambridgema.gov/~CDD/et/bike/bike_safety.html__.

Center for Education and Research in Safety. Report on Human Factors Comparison On Perceived Meaning of Three Alternative Shared Use Symbols, Prepared for the City of San Francisco, December 2002.



Week 7: International Pedestrian and Bicycle Transportation

Howe, John, “Enhancing Nonmotorized Transportation Use in Africa – Changing the Policy Climate,” Transportation Research Record 1487, 1995.

Dimitriou, Harry T., “Policy Making and Planning for Nonmotorized Transportation Systems in Third World Cities: A Developmental Approach,” Transportation Research Record 1396, 1993.


Week 8: Field Trip--Walking Audit of Berkeley High School Area

American Association of State Highway Transportation Officials.A Guide for Achieving Flexibility in Highway Design, 2004. Order from:https://bookstore.transportation.org/publications/bookstore.nsf/Categorized?OpenForm&cat=Design/Operations/Planning

US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. “Benefit-Cost Analysis of Bicycle Facilities,” Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center, Website, Available Online: http://www.bicyclinginfo.org/bikecost/, 2007.

Federal Highway Administration. A Resident's Guide for Creating Safe and Walkable Communities, FHWA-SA-07-016, Authors: L. Sandt, R. Schneider, D. Nabors, L. Thomas, C. Mitchell, and R.J. Eldridge, Available online: http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/ped_bike/ped/ped_walkguide/index.htm, February 2008.

Nabors, D., M. Gibbs, L. Sandt, S. Rocchi, E. Wilson, and M. Lipinski. Pedestrian Road Safety Audit Guidelines and Prompt Lists, Federal Highway Administration, FHWA-SA-07-007, July 2007.

Week 9: In-Class Presentations of Class Projects


Week 10: No Class--Spring Break


Week 11: Pedestrian and Bicycle Data Collection and Performance Measures

Aliance for Biking and Walking. Bicycling and Walking in the United States: 2010 Benchmarking Report, Authors: K. Steele and M. Altmaier, Available online: http://peoplepoweredmovement. org/site/images/uploads/2010% 20Benchmarking%20FINAL% 20DRAFT%201.25.09-Web.pdf, 2010.

Zegeer, C., D. Henderson, R. Blomberg, L. Marchetti, S. Masten, Y. Fan, L. Sandt, A. Brown, J. Stutts, and L. Thomas.Evaluation of the Miami-Dade Pedestrian Safety Demonstration Project, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center, June 2008.
Vermont Agency of Transportation. Vermont Pedestrian and Bicycle Policy Plan, Chapter 5: Vermont Pedestrian and Bicycle Performance Measures, Available online: http://www.aot.state.vt.us/planning/Documents/Planning/VTBPPP%2012-6-06-%20entire%20text.pdf, 2007.


United States Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Bicycle and Pedestrian Data: Sources, Needs, and Gaps, BTS00-02, Available Online: http://www.bts.gov/publications/bicycle_and_pedestrian_data/, 2000.


Transit Cooperative Research Program. Synthesis 62: Integration of Bicycles and Transit. Transportation Research Board, Consultant: Robert Schneider, Toole Design Group, LLC., 2005. Available online: http://www.trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=5615.



Week 12: Pedestrian and Bicycle Facility Assessment/Suitability Analysis Methods (Roadway/Sidewalk/Trail Segments)

Landis, Bruce W.; Venkat R. Vattikuti; and Michael T. Brannick. “Real-Time Human Perceptions: Towards a Bicycle Level of Service,” Transportation Research Record 1578, 1996. Available Online: http://www.dot.state.fl.us/planning/systems/sm/los/pdfs/BLOS_TRBscanned.pdf


Harkey, D.L.; D.W. Reinfurt; M. Knuiman; and A. Sorton. Development of the Bicycle Compatibility Index: A Level of Service Concept: Final Report, Report No. FHWA-RD-98-072, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, August 1998. Available Online: http://www.hsrc.unc.edu/research/pedbike/98095/.


Landis, B.W., V.R. Vattikuti, R. M. Ottenberg, D.S. McLeod, M. Guttenplan. “Modeling the Roadside Walking Environment: Pedestrian Level of Service,” Transportation Research Record 1773, Transportation Research Board, National Academy of Sciences, 2001.


US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. Shared-Use Path Level of Service Calculator: A Users Guide, Authors: Patten, R.S., R.J. Schneider, J.L. Toole, J.E. Hummer and N.M. Rouphail. Available online: http://www.tfhrc.gov/safety/pedbike/pubs/05138/index.htm, July 2006.



Week 13: Pedestrian and Bicycle Facility Assessment/Suitability Analysis Methods (Roadway Intersections/Crossings)

Chu, X. and M.R. Baltes. Pedestrian Mid-block Crossing Difficulty, National Center for Transit Research, University of South Florida, Prepared for Florida Department of Transportation, Available online: http://www.dot.state.fl.us/Planning/systems/sm/los/pdfs/pedestrian.pdf, 2001.



Week 14: Pedestrian and Bicycle Demand Analysis and Prioritization Methods

Schneider R.J., L.S. Arnold, and D.R. Ragland A Pilot Model for Estimating Pedestrian Intersection Crossing Volumes. Forthcoming, Transportation Research Record, 2009.


Clifton, K.J., C.V. Burnier, S. Huang, M.W. Kang, and R.J. Schneider.“A Meso-Scale Model of Pedestrian Demand,” Paper presented at the 4th Joint Meeting of the Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning and the Association of European Schools of Planning, Chicago, IL, July 6-11, 2008.


Pulugurtha, S.S. and Repaka, S.R.“Assessment of Models to Measure Pedestrian Activity at Signalized Intersections,” Transportation Research Record 2073, pp. 39-48, 2008.


Liu, X. and J. Griswold.“Pedestrian Volume Modeling: A Case Study of San Francisco,” Association of Pacific Coast Geographers Yearbook, Volume 71, 2009.


Raford, N. and D. Ragland. Pedestrian Volume Modeling for Traffic Safety and Exposure Analysis, University of California Traffic Safety Center, December 2005. Available Online: http://repositories.cdlib.org/its/tsc/UCB-TSC-RR-2005-TRB2/.


Landis, B.W. “The Bicycle System Performance Measures: The Intersection Hazard and Latent Demand Score Models,” ITE Journal, Volume 66, Number 2, pp. 18-26, February 1996.

Nelson/Nyguard Consulting Associates. Crediting Low-Traffic Developments: Adjusting Site-Level Vehicle Trip Generation Using URBEMIS, San Francisco, CA, August 2005.


Porter, C., J. Suhrbier, and W.L. Schwartz. “Forecasting Bicycle and Pedestrian Travel: State of the Practice and Research Needs,” Transportation Research Record 1674, Washington, DC, 1999.


Turner, S., G. Shunk, and A. Hottenstein. Development of a Methodology to Estimate Bicycle and Pedestrian Travel Demand, Texas Transportation Institute, Research Project Number 0-1723, Report 1723-S, Texas Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, September 1998.


Cervero, R. “Alternative Approaches to Modeling the Travel-Demand Impacts of Smart Growth,” Journal of the American Planning Association, Vol. 72, No. 3, 2006, pp. 285-295.


Hocherman, I., A.S. Hakkert and J. Bar-Ziv. “Estimating the Daily Volume of Crossing Pedestrians from Short-Counts,” Transportation Research Record 1168, Transportation Research Board, pp. 31-38, 1988.


US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. A Compendium of Available Bicycle and Pedestrian Trip Generation Data, FHWA-PD-95-009, 1995.


City of Alexandria, VA. City of Alexandria Pedestrian and Bicycle Mobility Plan. "Appendix I: Prioritization of Recommended Improvements", Available online: http://www.alexride.org/bikeped_study_projectreports.php, 2008.


Week 15: In-Class Presentations of Class Projects/Course Wrap-Up